AC asynchronous motor
AC asynchronous motor is the leading AC voltage motor, widely used in electric fans, refrigerators, washing machines, air conditioners, hairdryers, vacuum cleaners, range hoods, dishwashers, electric sewing machines, food processing machines, and other household appliances and various electric Tools, small electromechanical equipment.
The AC asynchronous motor is divided into an induction motor and an AC commutator motor. In addition, the induction motor is divided into a single-phase asynchronous motor, an AC-DC motor, and a repeller motor.
The speed of the motor (rotor speed) is less than the speed of the rotating magnetic field, so it is called an asynchronous motor. It is basically the same as the induction motor. s = (ns - n) / ns. s is the slip rate,
Ns is the magnetic field speed, and n is the rotor speed.
1. When the three-phase asynchronous motor is connected to the three-phase AC power supply, the three-phase stator winding flows through the three-phase magnetomotive force generated by the three-phase symmetrical current (stator rotational magnetomotive force) and generates a rotating magnetic field.
2. The rotating magnetic field has a relative cutting motion with the rotor conductor. According to the principle of electromagnetic induction, the rotor conductor generates an induced electromotive force and generates an induced current.
3. According to the law of electromagnetic force, the current-carrying rotor conductor is subjected to electromagnetic force in the magnetic field to form an electromagnetic torque, which drives the rotor to rotate. When the motor shaft has a mechanical load, the mechanical energy is output to the outside.
An asynchronous motor is an AC motor whose ratio of the speed of the load to the frequency of the connected grid is not constant. It also changes with the size of the load—the greater the load torque, the lower the rotor speed. Asynchronous motors include induction motors, doubly-fed induction motors, and AC commutator motors. Induction motors are the most widely used, and in general, induction motors are asynchronous motors without causing misunderstanding or confusion.
The stator winding of a common asynchronous motor is connected to the AC grid, and the rotor winding does not need to be connected to other power sources. Therefore, it has the advantages of simple structure, convenient manufacture, use and maintenance, reliable operation, low quality, and low cost. Asynchronous motors have higher operating efficiency and better working characteristics. They are close to constant speed operation from no-load to the full-load range, which can meet the transmission requirements of most industrial and agricultural production machinery. Asynchronous motors are also easy to generate various protection patterns to suit the needs of different environmental conditions. When the asynchronous motor is running, you must draw the reactive power from the grid to make the power factor of the grid deteriorate. Therefore, synchronous motors are often used for driving high-power, low-speed mechanical equipment such as ball mills and compressors. Since the speed of the asynchronous motor has a certain difference in rotational speed with the rotating magnetic field, the speed regulation performance is poor (except for the AC commutator motor). It is economical and convenient to use DC motors for transportation machinery, rolling mills, large-scale machine tools, printing and dyeing, and papermaking machinery that require a wide and smooth speed range. However, with the development of high-power electronic devices and AC speed control systems, the speed regulation performance and economy of asynchronous motors suitable for wide speed regulation are comparable to those of DC motors.
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